One of the primary functions of a bone graft material is to provide an osteoconductive surface for new bone formation. Bone regeneration is a cellular process that involves the interaction of osteoblasts and stem cells with the surface of a bone graft material. Studies have shown that the composition of a bone graft material can impact cellular interactions.
TrelCor technology utilizes a unique, biphasic composition that consists of hydroxycarbanoapatite (HCA) and calcium carbonate. HCA is a type of calcium phosphate that has carbonate substitution (carbonated apatite). This biomimetic composition closely resembles the mineral content of bone.
Using a proprietary process, TrelCor technology is formed by chemically converting the outer surface of a porous calcium carbonate scaffold into HCA. The conversion process results in a composite material that consists of a calcium carbonate core with a microscopically thin (4 microns) HCA surface layer. Since the HCA is the chemically created from the calcium carbonate, it is structurally integrated into underlying calcium carbonate core (not a coating).
The advantage of an HCA surface is that this material allows for faster bone formation. In general, the entire class of calcium phosphate bone graft materials enables bone tissue to form directly on the graft surface (osteoconduction). Typically this occurs in stages with osteoclasts initially preparing the surface, followed by osteoblasts building new bone. With a HCA graft material, the initial osteoclast process is significantly accelerated due to the similarity of HCA to natural bone mineral. This results in faster activation of the osteoblasts, and a faster bone formation process.1
1. Spence G. et al. Key Eng. Materials Vols. 309-31: pp 207-210 (2006); Hayashi K. et al. Materials Today Bio. 4: pp. 1-11 (2019)